Companion planting guide

The following tables offer valuable insights for plant selection and design in a Garden Tower or conventional garden.

Determine what plant(s) you would like to grow, check the table to learn which companion plants will help your desired plant thrive and which plants you should avoid planting adjacent to it! Don’t be intimidated, it’s simpler than it looks!

(Go to Herbs or Flowers)

Common name Scientific name
Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments   



fruit trees, nightshades (tomatoes, capsicum peppers, potatoes), brassicas (cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, etc.) carrots


slugs, aphids, carrot fly, cabbage worms[1]

beans, peas, parsley

Alliums include onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives, and others


Asparagus officinalis


Aster Family flowers, Dill, Coriander, Tomatoes, Parsley, Basil, Comfrey, Marigolds

coupled with Basil seems to encourage lady bugs

Onion, Garlic, Potatoes



potatoes, cereals (e.g. corn, wheat)

geraniums, dill, alliums (onions, shallots, garlic, etc.), rosemary, nasturtium, borage


mustards, nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, etc.)

Brassicas are a family of species which include broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and cauliflower.



Corn (see Three Sisters), Spinach, lettuce, rosemary, summer savory, dill, carrots, brassicas, beets, radish, strawberry and cucumbers

Eggplant, Summer savoury

California beetles

Tomatoes, chili peppers, alliums (onions, garlic, etc.), brassicas (cabbage, broccoli, etc.)

Hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria, a good fertiliser for some plants, too much for others


Beta Vulgaris

lettuce, kohlrabi, onions and brassicas

Catnip, Garlic, Mint

Runner or pole beans[2]

Good for adding minerals to the soil through composting leaves which have up to 25% magnesium. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each other’s growth.


Brassica oleracea

geraniums, dill, alliums, rosemary, nasturtium, borage

mustards, Tomatoes, peppers

Rosemary repels cabbage fly, geraniums trap cabbage worms, same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)


Brassica oleracea

geraniums, dill, alliums, rosemary

mustards, Tomatoes, peppers strawberries, and pole/runner beans

Rosemary repels cabbage flies, geraniums trap cabbage worms, same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)


Daucus carota

Tomatoes, Alliums (onions, chives, etc.), lettuce

alliums (leeks, shallots, etc.), rosemary, wormwood, sage, beans, flax

assassin bug, lacewing, parasitic wasp, yellow jacket and other predatory wasps

Dill, parsnip, radish

Tomatoes grow better with carrots, but may stunt the carrots’ growth. Beans (which are bad for tomatoes) provide the nitrogen carrots need more than some other vegetables. Aromatic companion plants repel carrot fly. Alliums inter-planted with carrots confuse onion and carrot flies.


Apium graveolens

Cosmos, Daisies, Snapdragons

corn, Aster flowers, these can transmit the aster yellows disease

Corn / Maize

Zea mays


Sunflowers, legumes (beans, peas, etc.), peanuts, cucurbits (squash, cucumbers, melons, etc.), amaranth, white geranium, lamb’s quarters, morning glory, parsley, and potato[2]

Tomato, Celery

Provides beans with a trellis, is protected from predators and dryness by cucurbits, in the three sisters technique


Cucumis Sativus

Nasturtiums, radishes, marigolds, sunflowers, peas, beets, carrots, and Dill

Beneficial for ground beetles

Tomato, Sage

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments

Eggplant or Aubergine

Solanum melongena

Beans, Peppers

Marigolds, tarragon, mints

Marigolds will deter nematodes.



Allium ampeloprasum v. porrum

Celery, apple trees


cabbage worms, aphids, carrot fly, others

Legumes (beans, peas, etc.), Swiss chard

Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, chives, etc.)


Lactuca sativa

Radish, Kohlrabi, beans, carrots

celery, cabbage, cress, parsley

Mints (including hyssop, sage, and various “balms”) repel slugs, a bane of lettuce and cabbages


Brassicaceae, Sinapis alba

Cabbage, cauliflower, radish, Brussels sprouts, turnips

various pests

Same general companion profile as all brassica (cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, etc.)



carrots, alliums, mints (basil, oregano, etc.)

beans, black walnuts, corn, fennel, dill, brassica (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.)

Nightshade plants include tomatoes, tobacco, chili peppers (including bell peppers), potatoes, eggplant, and others

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments


Allium cepa

Tomatoes, brassicas (broccoli, cabbage, etc.)


aphids, carrot fly, other pests

Beans, lentils, peas, parsley

Same companion traits as all other alliums (chives, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)


Solanaceae, Capsicum

themselves, marjoram

tomatoes, geraniums, petunias

Tomato Hornworm

beans, kale (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, etc.)

Pepper plants like high humidity, which can be helped along by planting with some kind of dense-leaf companion, like marjoram and basil; they also need direct sunlight, but their fruit can be harmed by it…pepper plants grown together, or with tomatoes, can shelter the fruit from sunlight, and raises the humidity level.


Solanum tuberosum


Atriplex, carrot, cucumber, onion, raspberries, squash, sunflower, tomato

Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes


Pastinaca Sativa

fruit trees

a variety of predatory insects

The flowers of the parsnip plant left to seed will attract a variety of predatory insects to the garden, they are particularly helpful when left under fruit trees, the predators attacking codling moth and light brown apple moth. The root also contains Myristricin, which is toxic to fruit flies, house flies, red spider mite, pea aphids.

Pumpkin and other Squash

Curcurbita spp

corn, beans

Buckwheat, catnip, tansy, radishes

Spiders, Ground Beetles

Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles, Curcurbita can be used in the three sisters technique


Rafanus Sativus

squash, eggplant, cucumber,[2] lettuce

flea beetles, cucumber beetles

Radishes can be used as a trap crop against flea beetles


Spinacia oleracea

Peas, Beans

The peas and beans provide natural shade for the spinach


Solanum lycopersicum

roses, peppers, asparagus

basil,[3] oregano, parsley, carrots, marigold, Alliums, celery, Geraniums, Petunias, Nasturtium, Borage, any type of onion or chives

Tomato Hornworm

asparagus beetle

Black walnut, corn, fennel, peas, dill, potatoes, beetroot, brassicas (kohlrabi, cabbage, etc.), rosemary

Dill attracts tomato hornworm.

Growing basil 10 inches apart from tomatoes can increase the yield of tomatoes by about 20%.[3]


Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments      


Ocimum basilicum

tomato,[3] peppers, oregano, asparagus, petunias

chamomile, anise


asparagus beetle, mosquitoes, thrips and flies

common rue

is said to make tomatoes taste better, chamomile and anise are supposed to increase the essential oils in many herbs like basil


Borago officinalis

Almost everything, especially strawberry, cucurbits (cucumber, gourds), tomatoes and cabbage

Predatory insects, honeybees

many pests

Predict a square meter for its adult size. Borage is the magic bullet of companion plants


Carum carvi


Parasitic wasps, parasitic flies


Matricaria recutita

Basil, Wheat, Onion, Cabbage, Cucumber

Hoverflies, wasps

Growing near herbs will increase their oil production.


Anthriscus cerefolium

Radish, lettuce, broccoli



loves shade, fortunately it grows well with shade-tolerant food plants; will make radishes grown near it taste spicier

Cilantro / Coriander

Coriandrum sativum


beans, peas

tachinid fly

aphids, spider mites, white flies and potato beetle


Allium schoenoprasum

Apples, carrots, tomatoes, brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc.), many others


cabbage worms, carrot fly, aphids

beans, peas

Same companion traits as all alliums (onions, garlic, shallots, leeks, etc.)said to prevent apple scab after 3 years planting at base of apple trees

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels Avoid Comments


Anethum graveolens

Cabbages, Corn, Lettuce, Onions, Cucumbers

Tiger Swallowtail butterflies/ caterpillars, Hoverflies, Wasps, Tomato Hornworm, honeybees, Ichneumonid Wasps

Aphids, spider mites, squash bugs, cabbage looper

carrots, tomatoes

one of the few plants said to grow with fennel


Foeniculum vulgare



ladybugs, syrphid fly, tachinid fly


Almost everything

Fennel is allelopathic to most garden plants, inhibiting growth, causing to bolt, or actually killing many plants


Allium sativum

Apple trees, Pear trees, Roses, Cucumbers, Lettuce, Celery

Aphids, cabbage looper, ants, rabbits, cabbage maggot, vampires

Beans, cabbages, peas

Deters rabbits, same companion traits as all alliums (onions, chives, shallots, leeks, etc.)


Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa

Brassica (cabbage, brussels sprouts, other kales)

Repels many types of beetles which attack cabbages.


Hyssopus officinalis

Cabbage, grapes

honeybees, butterflies

Cabbage moth larvae, Cabbage Butterflies

Stimulates growth of grapes.


Levisticum officinale

Almost all plants


Ichneumonid Wasps, ground beetles (good)


Is thought to improve the health of almost all plants, like borage and geraniums, is considered a “magic bullet” of companion planting


Origanum vulgare

Tomatoes, peppers, many other plants



provides ground cover and much-needed humidity for pepper plants if allowed to spread among them


Petroselinum Crispum

Asparagus, corn/maize, tomatoes

Swallowtail Butterflies, wasps, flies

Alliums, lettuce

Sacrificially attracts insects that predate upon tomatoes

Common name Scientific name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels
Avoid Comments


Mentha piperita

Brassica (cabbage, kholrabi, broccoli, and the other kales)

cabbage fly, ants, cabbage looper

Repels cabbage flies, has same general companion properties as other mints


Rosmarinus officinalis

sage, cabbage, beans, carrots, thyme

bean beetle


Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites


Salvia officinalis

rosemary, cabbage, beans, carrots

honeybees, cabbage butterfly

cabbage flies, carrot fly, black flea beetle, cabbage looper, cabbage maggot

Deters cabbage flies, repels many bean parasites

Southern- wood

Artemisia abrotanum

Fruit trees

Controls cabbage moths and malaria mosquitoes.


Mentha spicata

ants, aphids

Controls ants and aphids, has same general companion properties as other mints.

Summer Savoury

Satureja hortensis

Green beans, onions,

also delays germination of certain foul herbs


Tanacetum vulgare

beans, cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), corn, roses


flying insects (Ichneumonid Wasps), Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs and ants

Is reputed to generally repel insects (except for nectar-eating types). This herb should not be consumed, as it is quite toxic.


Artemisia dracunculus

Everything, but especially eggplant

Its scent is disliked by most pests, and this plant is also thought to have Nurse Plant properties, enhancing the growth and flavor of crops grown with it.


Cabbage and broccoli

Deters white fly


Common Name Scientific Name Helps Helped by Attracts Repels
Avoid Comments


Pelargonium spp.

Roses, corn, peppers, grapes

leafhoppers, Japanese beetles

Tomatoes, Tobacco, Eggplants and other nightshades

A trap crop, attracting pests away from roses and grape vines, distracts beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly top virus, keep away from Solanaceous plants like eggplant, and tobacco



Cucurbits, brassica, lettuce, rosemary, dill, strawberry

summer savory


tomatoes and other solanaceae

This wildflower is a legume, hosting bacteria that fixes nitrogen in the soil, fertilizing it for neighboring plants


Asteraceae Calendula Tagetes

most plants, especially tomatoes and peppers, cucurbits (cucumbers, gourds, squash), brassicas (broccoli, kale, cabbage)


nematodes, beet leaf hoppers, other pests

Marigolds are a wonder-drug of the companion plant world, invoking the saying “plant them everywhere in your garden”. French marigolds produce a pesticidal chemical from their roots, so strong it lasts years after they are gone. Mexican marigolds do the same, but are so strong they will inhibit the growth of some more tender herbs. Certain Varieties of marigolds (Tagetes) can help manage eelworms (Root-knot nematode) when planted the year before [1].

Tagetes has also been found effective against perennial weeds such as Ranunculus ficaria (Celandine), Aegopodium podagraria (Ground elder), Glechoma hederacea (Ground ivy), Agropyron repens (Couch grass), Convolvulus arvensis (Field bindweed), Equisetum arvense (Field/Common Horsetail) and other ‘starchy’ weeds.[citation needed]


Petunia x hybrida

cucurbits (squash, pumpkins, cucumbers), asparagus

leafhoppers, Japanese beetles, aphids, asparagus beetle

Is a trap crop almost identical to geraniums in function


Tropaeolum majus

Many plants, especially cucurbits (melons, cucumbers, gourds), beans, tomatoes, apple trees, brassicas (broccoli, cabbage, etc.), radish

predatory insects

aphids, cabbage looper, squash bug, white fly, cucumber beetles

radish, cauliflower

Both work as trap crops for aphids, is among the best at attracting predatory insects[citation needed]


Helianthus annuus

corn, tomatoes


Was grown as a companion for corn(maize) before modern Europeans arrived in the Americas, supposedly increases their production, ants herd aphids onto sunflowers, keeping them off neighboring plants


Tanacetum vulgare

cucurbits (cucumbers, squash, etc.), raspberries and relatives, roses, corn

sugar ants, Japanese beetles, cucumber beetles, squash bugs, mice

Toxic to many animals, don’t plant it where livestock browse


Achillea millefolium

many plants

predatory wasps, ladybugs, hoverflies, damselbugs

May increase the essential oil production of some herbs. Also improves soil quality, use the leaves to enrich compost, or as mulch.



beans, tomatoes, peppers


Attracts hummingbirds that eat whitflies, attracts pollinators