Make a Sweet Deal with the Honeybees

By: gardentower | 7 Comments | Uncategorized

Honeybees face a lot of challenges today! A small garden plot or container garden managed to suit them is a great opportunity to support your community’s native pollinators while bolstering your harvests. What you will find is that your bees like many of the same things you do!

What is going on with the bees?

We do not understand the many factors that seem to contribute to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The sudden die-off of entire colonies of bees was first remarked upon in 2006. When the colony collapses, the only bees left in the hive are the queen and immature bees (1). Scientists began to conclude that neonicotinoids (or neonics) were causing the problems. They still might be part of the problem. Thanks to further study and scientific methods, people continue to research the problems. There is some recognition now that the die off of adult workers forces young bees to become workers in a collapsing colony. (2) Why would that happen? It seems that there isn’t as much out there for the bees to forage on. (3) Also, bees, like everyone else, have to deal with more toxins in their environment. We can recognize that the problems contributing to CCD reflect the interconnected nature of life on the planet.

Here is an excerpt from the USDA site on Colony Collapse Disorder (1):

Scientists are looking in four general categories for the cause/causes of CCD:
Pathogens: Among others, scientists are considering Nosema (a pathogenic gut fungi), Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, and possibly unknown pathogens as possible culprits in CCD. ARS research has indicated that no one pathogen of any class directly correlates with the majority of CCD incidents. Rather, a higher total pathogen load of viruses and bacteria correlates more directly with CCD than any one specific pathogen.

Parasites: Varroa mites are often found in honey bee colonies that are affected by CCD. It is not known if the Varroa mites are directly involved or if the viruses that Varroa mites transmit (similar to the way mosquitoes transmit the malaria virus) are a factor in causing CCD.

Management stressors: Among the management stressors that are possible contributors to CCD are poor nutrition due to apiary overcrowding and increased migratory stress brought on by the honey bees being transported to multiple locations across the country.

Environmental stressors:
Such stressors include the impact of pollen/nectar scarcity, lack of diversity in nectar/pollen, availability of only pollen/nectar with low nutritional value, and limited access to water or access only to contaminated water. Stressors also include accidental or intentional exposure to pesticides at lethal or sub-lethal levels. (1)

How to suit the bee’s needs:

This information seems to be consistent across the debates. It seems there are some things we can do to help a local colony!

1. Plant so there is something flowering throughout the season. Bees feed on pollen from flowers. Attract bees to your garden by having flowering plants at all times. Dedicate some space in your garden (or Garden Tower) for annual flowers. When they begin to fade, replace them with something that will bloom through the next part of the season. We like flowers, too, so this strategy agrees with most gardeners.

Here are a few popular flowers you can put in your garden to feed the bees and keep them healthy (4): Sweet Alyssum, Salvia, Yarrow, Lavender, Borage

2. Plant herbs for bee health. Many of our herbs for cooking also contain substances that are good for bee health. Many people recognize the mind family for its benefits to bees—and there are more than 4,000 plants in the mint family! Some of our favorite cooking herbs—like thyme and oregano are good for bees—and tasty in our kitchen dishes, too. These plants provide immune support to both you and the bees.

Here is a list of herbs you might like to try in your garden (or Garden Tower) for Bees: Oregano, Thyme (there are many varieties), Mints: try chocolate mint! Because mints can be expansive in a garden, it is a good idea to put them in a container to limit their spread.

3.Other things to do:
Make water available to bees. The water should be in shallow containers so the bees can approach it safely.

Plant other areas of your garden to support bees. You can use the same patterns of planting from your Garden Towers to apply to you landscape. What if you don’t own land for more garden? Borrow someone else’s land! Ask the building owner or neighbors—or the city—to include some of these trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants in the landscape. Bees often do not have adequate forage in the late summer and fall. Include some unusual plants that bloom late in your garden design. A strip of perennial prairie plants could be just the thing! Here are a few to get you started: Coneflower (Echinacea), Asters, Goldenrod, Pincushion Flowers, Strawflowers, milkweeds (and they will help the monarch butterflies, too.)

With even a little space, you could plant a forest garden/orchard to provide even more forage for the bees—and fruit for you!

If you live near areas that have problems with pesticide drift consider putting up screening. This could be a thickly planted windbreak or a trellis with plants that help filter and clean the air. This can be healthier for you and create a sanctuary for the bees.

Consider keeping bees. Bees thrive in surprising spaces. Rooftops and other edge spaces are often perfect for beehives. Always check your local laws and best practices recommendations. (6) Also, take a class on bee keeping! There are often schools for bee keeping in late winter to help out new people. Beekeepers tend to be generous with their time and advice.

Bees are an important part of our world and critical to our cultivated food systems. Your efforts might make the difference for a hive. It could mean more fruit and more honey for you. All around it is a sweet deal!

Resources and notes

1. http://www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?docid=15572

2. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3427.abstract. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies Clint J. Perry, Eirik Søvik, Mary R. Myerscough , and Andrew B. Barron

3. http://www.ask-force.org/web/Bees/Naug-Nutritional-Stress-2009.pdf

4. http://www.sunset.com/garden/flowers-plants/plants-pollination/view-all

5. http://www.beeccdcap.uga.edu/documents/bmpcalagr.html

What to Put in a Garden Journal

By: gardentower | No Comment | Uncategorized

Keeping a garden journal is a beautiful blend of art and science. It is a testament to your garden and a notebook of learning accomplished throughout your growing year. What you put into a journal makes it incredibly useful for years to come—creating a kind of almanac specific to your location. Tracking changes in your garden—bloom times and harvest, seeding times, and so on also contributes to the study of local phenology. Phenology is “Phenology refers to key seasonal changes in plants and animals from year to year – such as flowering, emergence of insects and migration of birds – especially their timing and relationship with weather and climate.” (read more). Below are some of the things that can be most helpful for your journal, an explanation of why, as well as an example of how to create a journal custom-tailored to your needs.

Planting Plan: In the beginning of your journal creating a diagram or map of what you intend to plant where is helpful. As you plant perennials, you might mark them on a base map and copy it each year – creating new plans for annuals. Pasting this into the front of your garden journal will help to keep you straight. It might even help a spouse not remove the wrong thing (I speak from experience) or point a temporary caretaker in the right direction while you are gone. I like to use a map and numbers to keep things straight, but you can also use a narrative description in your records to keep things clear.

Notes on major projects for the year: Do you want to put in a new compost system or fencing or chickens this year? Arbors, trellis, pathways, water collection, irrigation systems, greenhouses…. Using a Future Log on a couple of pages can help you figure out how to stage improvement efforts between planting and harvesting—or when you typically have good weather.

Plant information:
 Seed catalogs, gardening books from the library, apps and websites can all help you fill in the missing information over time. Knowing the varieties you have; how they perform in your garden; and whether you like them or not are all important things to keep track of. I like to put in how the kids respond to something (“We love cheese squash!” or “Alpine strawberries are the best!”

Variety: This you might research before you order your seeds—or keep track of as you save seeds from your own garden. Paying attention to varieties is crucial because they help you know which niche in the garden to put them in, how long it will take (on average) for them to fruit, color, resistance to disease and many other characteristics.

Source: This can be a brief notation, but it helps to know which seed companies you like—or whether the seeds came from your own garden or a friend’s garden.

Date Seeds Started: Again, this is important because it helps you track performance—and have a sense of when to begin your garden and how things are changing from year to year.

Germination Date: The date you see the seeds emerge from the soil surface is notable because it will help you understand more about your garden and will help you to track the growth of the plants over time.


Transplant source: If you don’t plant your own seeds, germination won’t matter, but tracking where the plants came from and how they are doing will help you make decisions about plants in the future.

Flowering: This isn’t critical (except for fruit trees and shrubs), but it is nice to have a written record of what flowers when and how that changes from year to year. You might use it to help plan to have flowers throughout the year—whether for beauty or to feed and support pollinators in your garden.

Fruiting or Harvest: This is what you’ve been waiting for!  The date you harvested, the quantity by number or weight, and the quality of the harvest are all items to consider recording. Does it look good, taste good, produce well, and resist pests? Does one variety tolerate the humidity or drought better? You might find you want to repeat some things and not others. Or you may find you want to save some seeds for next year. And a record is evidence when bragging to the neighbors!

Weather information: This might be kept on one sheet in your journal or noted amongst your daily observations. Having it in one place to compare months and years is often helpful. You’ll want to make notes on the high and low temperatures for the day, precipitation, cloud cover, and prevailing or significant winds. Some gardeners like to track and plant by moon phases.

Daily observations: It’s the little things that bring us joy. The most beautiful purple in a flower or seeing the swelling bud that will bring us the first berry in spring. Making a note or including a drawing let’s us track and relive these phenomena in our lives. The coming of insects in the spring to pollinate or the first pests can be valuable to know as our garden grows and adapts from year to year. Whether you can draw or not, this is a great way to record information.

How to do it:  How to keep track and organize all of this? Spreadsheets and apps might work on your computer. I like to physically write down my observations—either right in the garden or at a station set up near my door.

This year I’m adapting something I like. The Bullet Journal method of setting up a journal might be a great option for you, too. The ideas from a regular journal organization can be modified to include the above categories. An index at the beginning helps you to organize and find information for the whole journal. A future log allows you to plan each month ahead. The month pages can be places to record weather information and tasks in the garden. Other pages can be dedicated to seed source information, seed starting pages, and pest management plans. With the index in front of the journal, you can cross-reference related items and easily find things from year to year—making your journal truly a reference item.

Whether you go all in and like to record every little detail or keep a notebook with a few jotted notes; whether you like to draw out your journal or keep a spreadsheet, journaling can deepen your connection to your garden and ensure more success from year to year. Here’s to a great year ahead! 

Water, Water, Everywhere….

By: gardentower | No Comment | Uncategorized

Water in our gardens—how it works & why it’s importan

Water is critical in our gardens. Of course! We know it is the source of all life on this planet. Nothing grows without water. Nothing thrives without adequate water. Adequate means both quantity of water and quality of water. As we move into the future, we recognize that careful use—and re-use—of our water resources is critical. 

Why fresh water is disappearing in our world: 
When we were in grade school, we all learned about the water cycle. It moves evaporated water from our oceans to the mountains and returns to the bodies of water through the streams and rivers. Rinse and repeat. If the water cycle is working, we have unlimited fresh water. Right?  

It turns out that the fresh water resources of our planet also have limits. Glaciers supply water from our highest mountains to areas with high population density (think India). These are disappearing at increasing speed.[1,2]  Snowpack in our own Rocky Mountains is also varying from winter to winter. California’s snowpack this year is drastically reduced.[3]

What about wells? Aquifers are long-term water storages underground. These are often connected to sub-surface water flows (water table). We draw down the water resources faster than they replenish.[4]  See what’s happening to the Ogallala Aquifer.[5]

Indiana, like many states, draws much of the municipal water supply from surface water storages built around the 1950’s. These lakes have been silting in since their creation. Griffy Lake, a previous water supply for the city of Bloomington covers about 109 acres, but the majority of the lake is only a few feet deep. Without dredging, the storage would fill in quickly. These surface storage lakes are also poor water quality as gas powered boats swarm over the lakes throughout the year. 

We can all be smarter about our relationship with water. Here are some things you can do:

– Develop a relationship with your water—where it comes from, catch it if you can (ponds, rain barrels, tanks, natural swimming pools…)

From where does your water come? Develop a relationship with your water. Because water is so important to thriving homes, aim to have three sources of water available in an emergency. Simple water storages are in the soil (by having a higher percentage of organic matter in your soil). Store water in rain gardens and ponds. Stash it away in rain barrels and in cisterns. Wells and municipal water may be your primary source, but a cistern full of water may mean peace of mind. 

Many dry towns and states of the west forbid rain barrels or larger tanks. Water falling on your roof is already promised to others down-stream from you.  States, such as Colorado, are beginning to realize that rain barrels and tanks positively impact the flow of water downstream.[6]  In fact–increased vegetative cover may improve the tight cycling of water in an area. It can create even more precipitation for yourself and your neighbors as plants transpire water into the atmosphere. Learn the rules in your area. Work with your local and state officials. Educate them about your careful use of water; the power of creating storages; and the transformation of landscapes by the re-use of water.

– Use it carefully (point out the GT conservation number); and re-use it. (GT design does this, too)

Know how much your household uses and what you can do to conserve water in your home and garden.  Do an audit of how much water your household uses. Some households use as much as 140 gallons of water per day for showers, dishes, laundry and more. The average household of four uses 400 gallons per day.[7]  When you use low-flow showerheads, water-saving laundry machines, and low-flush toilets, you reduce the amount of water. You are saving the earth and your pocket book.  Reduce landscaping that needs irrigation in favor of plants that adapted to drier conditions. With the Garden Tower design, early user, Kathryn Sharp,[8] reported a 90% reduction in water usage.  All the while, she grew veggies and composted with worms. There are lots of ways to creatively reduce your water use.

Also, not all used water is the same. Any water used in the household that has been through the shower, laundry, dishwashing, or sink is considered gray water. (Water used in conjunction with toilets is black water; please take proper precautions!).

Your garden plants do not need potable water to be happy. Minerals, fats, and bits of vegetable material enhance gray water. Plants and other organisms in a gray water system use them well.   (Please do be careful. Track gray water use in your Garden Tower so as not to overwhelm the soil organisms and plants with compounds such as oils and soaps.) Match the quality of your water supply to the need. 

Re-use your water where you can—send it throughout different parts of your home and garden. Water houseplants with your dishwater. The garden tower also uses this kind of efficiency by re-using the water draining through the tower. This increases productivity and preserves nutrient density. Compost—including wonderful worm castings–enhance the water!

– Clean it before it leaves your home (gray water in your garden) Imagine a vibrant garden 

Taking responsibility for the quality of the water that leaves your garden is a great way to make a positive difference in the world.  Start with conservation. Include reuse. Work to clean water through systems which mimic nature. These actions will help ensure our world is greener and brighter. Thank you. 

Other Resources: 



[1] http://www.cbc.ca/radio/quirks/quirks-quarks-for-april-11-2015-1.3027977/canada-s-disappearing-glaciers-1.3028394

[2] http://www.weather.com/science/environment/news/antarctica-glaciers-melting-climate-change

[3] http://www.water.ca.gov/waterconditions/waterconditions.cfm

[4] https://water.usgs.gov/edu/gwdepletion.html

[5] http://farmfutures.com/story-geological-survey-finds-groundwater-levels-shrinking-0-98465

[6] http://denver.cbslocal.com/2015/03/23/colorado-house-votes-to-end-unique-ban-on-rain-barrels/

[7] http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/indoor.html

[8] http://www.gardentowerproject.com/testimonials/testimonials-2

Key Strategies to Keep Your Seeds on Track this Year

By: gardentower | 1 Comment | Uncategorized

And they’re off! Spring has sprung and it’s time and past time for seedlings to be in their trays. Questions abound…will they sprout? Did I plant them too early? Too late? Are there enough? Too many? When do I water them? When do I transplant them? Where should I source my seeds?

What to plant?

1. Plant what you like to eat!

2. Plant what will grow in your zone and bear fruit in a season. The zone refers to the area you live and how many months of frost-free growing you have in that area. Latitude, proximity to the coasts, aspect in relation to the sun, and elevation above sea level all affect zones. Microclimates affect the success of plants. These shady, cool spots or warm sheltered places within your yard make a difference.

3. Plant what will work within your limiting factors. Consider the amount of light/shade; water availability; wind exposure; soil composition; your time limits). These factors can make the difference between beautiful tomatoes or wilty plants. It is important to be clear about your time, too. We all have the best of intentions in April—and busy lives in July and August when the weeds are thick and the harvest is coming on.

4. Don’t plant everything you want to grow. If you are only going to plant out a few tomatoes or squash plants; it makes more sense to buy from a nursery or farmers’ market vendor.

Where to source seeds?
Look for more on this topic soon, but suffice it to say for now that we need more seed variety in this country. There are several good seed companies and they all need your support. Look for seed companies local to you. Look for seed companies that produce seed in a zone like yours. Look for open-pollinated and heirloom varieties. Buy organic seed if you can. Borrow from (and replenish) a seed library. 

Consider the possibility of starting to save your own seeds to start next year. With a little prior proper planning on your part, you can begin to breed your own varieties suited to your specific area. And you get to name your creation!

When to plant?

This is a combination of factors. Most important is the length of time to fruition and the length of your season. Most seed packets and catalogues list when to plant and the number of days until germination and fruition. Start some plants indoors well before the average last frost. Start hardier plants outdoors (most of these can also start in trays).  Note: Trays are more subject to chill temperatures. They need the protection of plastic or a building or a heat mat to produce well. Likewise they need regular watering to maintain soil moisture.

To get continuous production in your garden, you can seed plants every several days within the window for each type of plant. For example, if radishes are your thing and you have a six month growing season, you can plant radishes every week. Radishes take about 30 days to harvest. You would have a regular harvest every week, or until it gets to be too warm or until you tire of radishes.

Caring for Seedlings

We plant out several varieties of greens in trays each spring. We fill other trays with mini-rows of brassicas (cabbage/broccoli family). We even put beets and parsnips in trays. The ends of the mature root crops may not look perfect, but their success from a tray vs. direct seeding in the soil makes it worth it. 

The seedlings need light, heat, and closely-regulated moisture. They need a good, nutrient –rich soil for their growth. This soil should be light and fluffy so the roots can spread out and growth healthy plants. A well-grown seedling will have more of its mass in its roots than the stems or leaves. At the same time, the leaves and stem should be strong, a vibrant color and free of blemishes.

Start seedlings close together in rows and transplant them into individual spaces. These can be individual pots or larger spaces in deeper trays. Give them a few days to adjust to the new conditions. Then “harden them off” by leaving the plants outdoors for longer periods of time until they adjust. Now you are ready to transplant them into their garden tower or permanent growing bed.

Now, how to distribute all the extra seedlings grown? And we’re off to start the next batches of seedlings!

Integrating Pest Management

By: gardentower | No Comment | Uncategorized

If you grow it, they will come. Pests.

Problems of all kinds crop up in the garden. Beginning gardeners sometimes get discouraged by the loss of a crop. It happens to everyone somtime—and often more than once. Don get discouraged! There are some things you can do to ensure your success and lessen the likelihood of unwelcome guests in the garden.  You should also prepare for losses. In this blog, we’ll cover:

How much can you tolerate and what are the effects of pests?

Why Integrated Pest Management?

Steps for Success

 How much can you take? 
Knowledge and experience will help you avoid losses, but some losses are inevitable. Having organic, fresh, nutrient-dense foods means produce doesn’t look perfect. That’s okay! The flavor and health in that food makes it superior!

Expect 10% losses—sometimes 30%! You can lose a small part of your harvest before it affects you. By using permaculture principle 1 (Observe and Interact) every day, you will know when something changes.  Sometimes a seeming pest benefits the plants.

A short story:
 when I began my permaculture system, I was growing a lot of dill (more on that below). We had a caterpillar begin to seriously munch on the dill leaves. It turns out that it was a tiger swallowtail butterfly caterpillar. My young daughter and I enjoyed watching the caterpillars grow fat on the dill. We thought of the butterflies they would become. After the caterpillars wandered off to their cocoons I realizes that they’d pruned back the dill plants. They did this right before the strongest heat and light of the summer. All the dill plants made it through the heat waves—and there was plenty of dill for everyone!

Why integrated pest management?
Your food will be healthier for you and your family. You will have healthier food and environment by using integrated methods and avoiding toxins. What is better for you is also better for everything else in the environment. Beneficial insects, bacteria and fungi can find their balance in your garden. You also help reduce the build-up of pesticide resistance. So if you really do have to resort to using something, it will be more effective.

When you do have to intervene, experiment with what will work on that pest. What worked for a friend may not work for you: be willing to try different things! Also recognize that what might work for you one year, might not be appropriate the next year.

Setting up for Success

1. Plant a polyculture. This strategy has a lot of benefits. Companion planting is one step in the right direction. It puts plants that feed on different soil nutrients or that deter pests of the neighboring plants together. Go a step further and plant a true polyculture—mixing many types of plants together. Continuously rearranging plants in the garden avoids predictable patterns and keeps pests confused. This strategy can be an effective means of keeping populations distributed and creating opportunities for pest predators and beneficial organisms to find their niches, too.

Polycultures are more like natural ecosystems. They create lots of variety—in contrast to monoculture cropping. For a potato beetle, a few rows of potato monoculture looks like a buffet. When potatoes are mixed in with perennials, flowers, veggies and especially fragrant herbs, insects are more confused. A few may find your plants, but it is not likely to be hordes.

Another thing is to use plants that attract pest predators. By encouraging a rich ecosystem, it can correct itself. Plants in the carrot family (dill, fennel, Queen Anne’s lace, etc…) attract predatory wasps. Don’t worry, these guys aren’t interested in you! Praying mantis and ladybugs showed up in our polyculture in the second season and have been increasing in numbers ever since. Spiders are helpful, too—though you may never see them.

Use strong smelling herbs and flowers (like marigold) to confuse insects that rely on smell to locate your favorite veggies!

If you grow in containers—like the Garden Tower—your ecosystem is small, but still active. Choosing your plants and arranging them with these tips in mind will help you achieve better plant health.

2. Space plants for good air flow and light penetration.  Besides insect pests, bacterial and fungal problems can affect your garden yields. Soil fertility and management allow us to pack plants in, we want to make sure there is adequate air flow to discourage fungal growth. Breezes also discourage insects from settling on your plants. Good air-flow spacing also means plants get adequate light saturation to be productive. Remove dead or dying or infected leaves from plants.

3. Plant and harvest at the right time:   By planting late or early and harvesting at the right time, you can avoid a wave of pests and their lifecycles. Last year, I planted winter squash around the fourth of July. By doing this I avoided the squash vine borer that can devastate a crop, but I also didn’t get much of a crop from the vines (which grew vigorously).  This year, I’ll plant more plants and hope to get a better yield. It also turns out last year wasn’t a big year for vine borers.

4.  Know what you’re dealing with:  Identify the pests first. If you need help, take in a photo to your local nursery, their knowledge and experience can be very helpful.

5. Support pest predators: Predatory wasps do love the carrot family (mentioned above). If you have an abundance of these foods in your garden, the wasps will come to live with you—and lay their eggs on the caterpillars of pests. Setting up homes for frogs, lizards, and birds and making water and spaces available to them will help to create a natural balance.

6. Use sacrifice crops: Plant extras of things that pests love and be willing to sacrifice some of them to the pests in exchange for more of what you want.

These are some passive ways to organize your garden to deal with pests. Pest management techniques also range into using traps (like a shallow pan of beer for slugs) and repellants of all kinds. Many of these are sold commercially and work well. Recipes for sprays also abound and most of the ingredients (like cayenne pepper) are common to your household.

Harvest and Seed Saving Tips for a Fun Fall!

By: gardentower | No Comment | Uncategorized

Welcome February and the bounty of the summer garden! This is a wonderful time of year to share some of your prize veggies with your friends and brag a bit about your growing skills in the garden (pun intended). We know how to enjoy our harvest, but we often miss a secondary harvest that will reap many rewards for you—saving seeds! Even if you didn’t garden this year, you can save seeds from the foods you eat.

The world of seed saving can be complicated, but it doesn’t have to be to get started. Starting out is simple and only requires a few household items, time and experimentation. Here are some of the benefits:

1. Saving the cost of seed for the next growing cycle

2. Knowing the source of your seed and its production conditions

3. Self-reliance and increased confidence

4. Fascination with the history of seeds!  (Warning, it can become an obsession.)

5. Breeding your own, localized varieties—and naming them

6. Refining varieties that are adapted to your local environment

So how do you get started?

1. Gather seeds from foods you’ve grown and foods you like to eat (especially organic foods). ★

Here are some suggestions for getting started: peppers, squash, tomatoes (note these need to be fermented), beans, peas

2. Treat the seeds: Tomatoes need to be submerged in water for about three days until the gelatinous coating ferments off and the seeds are able to be dried on a paper towel. This is one of the more “science lab” types of seeds to be saved. Most seeds just need to be left to dry out for a few days. Remove any seeds that seem damaged or affected by mold or bacteria.

3. Label and store. Once the seeds are dry, you can store them away for use in the future. Seeds should be labelled (type, specific variety, date saved, source). They should be stored in cool, dry storage. Some seed savers stick their silica packets from consumer goods in the oven to reactivate them and then put them in the envelopes or tins or jars with the seeds. I re-use envelopes from mailings and store my seeds in tins organized by the next season I’ll start sowing them.

Your seeds are now waiting for their chance to shine in your garden!

Resource for further reading and research:

Ashworth, Suzanne. Seed to Seed: Seed Saving and Growing Techniques for Vegetable Gardeners. Seed Savers Exchange, 2002.

★ Organic foods may have a better possibility of being more true between the vegetable or fruit you eat and the next generation. But not always. Buying from local farmers that use open-pollinated (and even heirloom) vegetable seed is the best option. However, even if you have a hybrid in your seed collection, by continuing to select for the best qualities, you can arrive at something unique and valuable.